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TB 55-1900-232-10
Substitution of materials can be dangerous as well as detrimental to the tow.
Substitutions shall not be made unless there is a complete knowledge of the
material being substituted. Material substitutes frequently introduce a new and
unpredictable weak link.  Substitution of a stronger material may change the
location of the weak link and relocate the potential failure point in the rig to a
position that is hazardous to personnel. (Page 3-14)
Use the applicable safety precautions for entering voids and unventilated spaces.
Failure to do so may result in injury or death to personnel. (Page 3-15)
Carefully adhere to safety requirements when entering closed spaces. See NSTM
Rockets should be used only where no explosive fuels, deck cargo or other
flammable objects are exposed. All uses of line throwing guns, rockets or heaving
lines should be accompanied by verbal warnings and sound warnings to take cover.
Failure to do so may result in injury or death to personnel. (Page 3-15)
Do not use screw-pin shackles in ocean towing. (Page 3-43)
Most casualties in passing a tow occur because the ships do not maintain a steady
course or speed, or because the towing ship releases the tow before the other ship
is ready to accept the
strain. (Page 4-3)
Always remain with a target sled until it is recovered or righted and towed to port; it
be- comes a hazard to navigation if it is left to drift. (Page 4-4)
Do not allow the tow hawser to drag on the bottom. (Page 5-9)
Cotter keys are not used in towing, despite MIILS-24214A (SHIPS) drawings.
If time and the situation permit, a detailed analysis of the padeye and connection
shall be made in order to avoid unexpected failure of either. (Page 5-31)
Wire rope stretches under load far less than most natural and synthetic fiber lines
and thus has a smaller zone of danger to bystanders from loose ends "snapping
back" in the event that it fails under high loads. The elongation under load is
sufficient, nonetheless, to be dangerous. The recoil can be extremely violent and
all personnel should stay well away from any potential recoil path. (Page B-l)
It is extremely important that wire rope used in critical or potentially dangerous
applications such as towing be properly maintained. (Page B-7)
When using a termination on the tow hawser of less than 100 percent efficiency, the
base strength to which the factors of safety are applied must be adjusted
accordingly. (Page B-11)


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