line. The buoy line must be long enough to reach the bottom and strong enough to lift the messenger, but it need not be
strong enough to lift the hawser itself. For ease of location, the buoy should be adequately marked with a bright color,
radar reflector, staff or flag
3-8.10 REPLENISHMENT AT SEA WITH A TOW. Long ocean tows or emergency circumstances may require the tug to
replenish at sea. Replenishment at sea is a well-established evolution, with procedures documented in NWP 14
Replenishment at Sea (Ref. 5). The methods outlined therein are suitable for passing fuel, water and other logistic
necessities to a tug with tow. The choice of which method to use will be influenced mostly by sea and weather
conditions, bearing in mind all the other factors which affect safe and efficient shiphandling. However, due to the
reduced maneuverability of the tug with tow, consideration should be given to having the supply ship maintain station on
the tug rather than the usual procedure of the receiving ship doing the station keeping. It may be advantageous due to
speed and maneuvering limitations to replenish from the stern of the replenishment ship. It is also possible to replenish
from the tow.
3-8.10.1 Emergency Replenishment. Emergency conditions, wartime operations or heavy weather may require great
ingenuity to effect logistic replenishment of the tug or tow. Water and fuel can be received from the tow, if available, by
shortening the towline and streaming hoses from the tug. In calm seas, the tug may go alongside the tow to effect the
necessary replenishment. This requires disconnecting the tow, but in calm seas the matter of reconnecting should pose
3-8.10.2 Rigging and Use of Fueling Rigs. Surging, often experienced in towing, may require that the replenishment
ship keep station on the tug. The greater maneuverability of the oiler and the lack of complete control by the tug
recommend this procedure. The tug designates the fueling station, receives the hose and proceeds to take on fuel while
employing standard precautions of proper stability, safety on deck, adequate communication and proper navigation.
Astern refueling is also recommended.
3-8.10.3 Astern Refueling from Another Tug. Being refueled astern from another tug while towing has become a
necessary and common evolution due to the limited number of replenishment ship assets. The evolution is somewhat
different from that described in NWP 14 and can be accomplished either with or without the sending ship taking the
receiving tug in tow. Due to the slow pumping rates available, taking the receiving tug in tow does, however, simplify
station-keeping in what is sometimes a 24- to 36-hour operation.
3-8.10.4 Replenishment Near a Port. The towing ship can arrange to temporarily transfer the tow to a local tug(s). The
ocean tug enters port to replenish, while the tow is maintained offshore by a temporary replacement tug(s). Upon
completion of replenishment, the towing ship returns, the tow is re-transferred and the journey resumes.
3-8.11 MAN OVERBOARD. If the recovery is to be accomplished by maneuvering the ship back to the man, seamen
should be stationed with heaving lines and swimmers outfitted with immersion or wet suits and safety lines ready to swim
out to the man.
In most towing situations the standard man overboard maneuvers may not provide a satisfactory solution, primarily
because of the time involved and the tug's limited maneuverability. In this situation, the tug should be stopped, or its
speed reduced to bare steerageway, and the recovery accomplished by use of a ship's boat. If the tug is stopped, great
care must be exercised to prevent the tow from overriding the tug and also to keep the towline clear of the propellers
Communications should be available between the boat and the tug to allow the tug to direct the boat to the man.