continuously conduct safety indoctrination lectures and exercises aimed at reducing unsafe conditions or practices and at
reacting appropriately to unusual circumstances through professional knowledge of their duties and towing procedures.
A-4 SPECIFIC SAFETY PRECAUTIONS In addition to the safety precautions in the OP-NAVINST 5100.19A series,
many paragraphs within this manual also contain specific notes of safety- related information. Rather than repeat notes
from these two sources, the following paragraphs on specific safety precautions discuss the approaches that are
recommended in applying these notes and procedures to towing operations.
A-4.1 SPECIFIC APPROACHES.
A-4.1.1 General Specifications. The General Specifications for Ships of the U.S. Navy (Ref. 21) mandates that any
ship that is likely to require towing, especially emergency towing, should be equipped to tow or be towed The equipment
inventory should be such that in an emergency nothing is required to be brought on board the tow or fabricated on the tow
Each ship must be capable of receiving or rigging an emergency towing rig designed so that the ship can tow or be towed
A-4.1.2 Non-Emergency Towing . For non-emergency situations (and for emergencies, to the extent that time permits)
the preparation procedures out- lined m Chapter 2 of this manual and in appropriate Type Command Directives or
Instructions must be completed. Even for missions that are repetitions of previous tows, it is important that the
preparation phase be repeated to ensure that nothing is over- looked. In both the preparation and operational phases of
any tow it is essential that full and open communication exist between the preparing activity and the towing vessel.
A-4.1.3 Safety. Safety is paramount in the preparation of individual Command Instructions and Towing Bills, as well as in
the preparations for individual towing tasks.
Checklists to assist in the operational planning and preparations for tows are included in Appendix H It must be
emphasized and understood by all hands that good planning, preparation for emergency situations, correct shiphandling
and good seamanship are all necessary elements of safe towing None is a simple paperwork drill. Rather, this phase of a
towing operation demands the same knowledge and seaman- ship skill as the actual at-sea phase. Past experience has
amply demonstrated that from the very onset of the tow tasking, it is imperative that the plan for preparing the tow for the
transit be thoroughly conducted and reviewed prior to implementation In some instances, such as ocean tows of complex
units like drydocks, the plans and the tow may be prepared by a civilian marine contractor and supervised by the
Supervisor of Shipbuilding and Repair at an appropriate Navy facility. In a peacetime Navy (or in the early stages of war)
there can be wide variations in the availability and quality of "in-house" expertise in the field of towing and tow
preparations. The towing unit must therefore monitor the efforts of the activity preparing the tow Continuous inspections
must be made and positive action must be taken immediately to correct identified deficiencies. Attendance at any
meeting held by the cognizant activity for the tow and the preparing activity, or contractor, should be mandatory for the
towing unit Commanding Officer or his representative; and he should not be timid m making any comments or
A-4.1.4 Planning. Although the planning procedures are presented in considerable detail in this manual and its
appendices, extreme care and judgment must be exercised. Blind dependence upon the results of routine calculation
methods, and especially on computerized procedures, without careful cross-checking can lead to major errors and
possibly extreme operational difficulties