J-2.3 AVAILABILITY OF OCEAN-GOING TUGS . Nonetheless, there are a large number of tugs available throughout
the world A 1985 survey reported 965 tugs and 733 supply tugs over 1,000 horsepower Of these, 99 tugs and 171 supply
tugs claim 6,000 to 10,000 IHP and 28 tugs and 27 supply tugs list over 10,000 IHP The total numbers are probably
under- stated, since some well-known salvage/towing firms are not listed in the survey and there are few Communist bloc
ships listed. On the other hand, the ships were listed as reported by the owners, without comment. Many of the smaller,
less-powerful tugs are unsuited for any but the most benign tows In addition, many quite powerful tugs, in the 4,000 to
8,000 IHP range, are well under 150 feet in length. The ships are optimized beautifully for point-to-point towing but may
be handicapped seriously m a rescue tow scenario under strenuous sea conditions.
This section again demonstrates that care must be exercised in the selection of a tug for a particular mission.
J-3 OBTAINING TUG ASSISTANCE.
This section provides guidance in obtaining commercial tug assistance.
J-3.1 EMERGENCY TUG ASSISTANCE . Since the Navy ship requiring emergency towing assistance will communicate
with its operational and administrative superiors by designated means, it will be helpful, subject to security restrictions, to
query the UHF and VHF emergency channel frequencies to determine whether competent assistance is available close
by Salvage tugs always, and most other tugs frequently monitor the distress frequencies and will make their presence
known. Knowledge of such avail- ability, along with pertinent data on the tug and its owners, will be useful to the
operational superiors in resolving the problem.
J-3.2 RESTRICTIONS IN CONTRACTING .
U S Navy ship Commanding Officers are not authorized to commit the US. government to indefinite obligations or
claims. A Lloyds Open Form contract requires arbitration in, and is subject to, the laws and courts of Great Britain. The
United States will not permit itself to be subject to such requirements Further, even a per diem (fixed rate) salvage
contract involves an indefinite value. The net result is that the Commanding Officer of a U.S. Navy ship is severely
restricted in arranging for emergency assistance
J-3.3 CONTRACTING FOR EMERGENCY COMMERCIAL TOWING ASSISTANCE . If Navy towing assets are not
available, the appropriate superior in the chain of command can arrange for emergency commercial towing assistance in
The cognizant U S Government procurement office can be contacted and provide data on any potential nearby
assistance. That activity can arrange for an appropriate per-diem-type con- tract with the tug's owners, who will
immediately advise the tug
The U.S Navy Supervisor of Salvage (Director of
Ocean Engineering-NAVSEA OOC) can be contacted by message and/or telephone at 202-697- 7386 or -7403
(AUTOVON 227-7386 or -7403). SUPSALV maintains standing salvage con- tracts that can respond
immediately. Frequently, the response is m the form of the Navy salvage contractor sub-contracting with the
most appropriate salvage/towing firm anywhere m the world Thus, an available commercial tug can be directed
to provide emergency assistance with very little delay, and without subjecting all par- ties to protracted legal
efforts after the fact
J-3.4 ARRANGING FOR ROUTINE (NON- EMERGENCY) TOWS BY COMMERCIAL TUGS . The tow planner normally
will request the tow from the appropriate Navy operational Surface Force Commander who will arrange for a U.S. Navy
or Military Sealift Command tow. If neither is available, the tow should be
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