(3) Rigid closure discipline of watertight doors, hatches, vent ducts, and so forth, must be maintained
before and during operations, underway or beached, where the ship may be exposed to accidental or battle damage.
Open doors and hatches will not reduce the effect of an explosion by venting it, but will only permit flooding, fires, and
other effects of the explosion to spread.
Stability. Adequate stability characteristics are provided to make a ship seaworthy and keep it from
capsizing after absorbing damage resulting in flooding of no more than one watertight subdivision. Preservation of
satisfactory stability characteristics requires adherence to liquid loading instructions, remaining within the specified
limiting drafts, removal of any unusual topside weights, and maintenance of a proper degree of watertight integrity.
Proper displacement. Overloading has the adverse effect of reducing freeboard and reserve buoyancy.
Plimsoll marks on the sides of the ship show the limiting drafts. Limiting displacements and drafts have been established
for this ship. See the Trim and Stability Booklet.
Proper distribution of liquids. The Liquid Loading Diagram (FIGURE FO-1) shows the distribution and
amounts of liquids normally carried on board and the effect on trim and list of filling each tank with its normal capacity of
Section V. MEASURES TO RESIST FLOODING BEFORE DAMAGE
PURPOSE. Ninety percent of the work of damage control, the important part, is accomplished before damage,
and only about 10 percent after the ship has been damaged. Much of this preparatory work consists of measures to
toughen the ship to resist flooding. The purpose of this section is to discuss these measures from the standpoint of
buoyancy and stability.
5-10. COMBATING FLOODING. Both speed and accuracy are required in combating flooding. To be effective in
applying corrective measures, damage control personnel must be familiar with the equipment provided to control list and
trim and to improve stability. Preparing damage control bills that establish procedures to be followed in the event of
flooding is also recommended. These might include a drainage bill and a jettison ship bill as described in the paragraphs
5-11. DRAINAGE BILL. Since the ship's drainage facilities (including portable pumping equipment) provide means to
suppress free surface and remove weight, some thought should be given to assigning a priority to the elimination of loose
water and high weight before low weight and solid flooding. Damage control officers should also make themselves aware
of the fact that removal of flooding water from one side of the ship is of the greatest benefit in correcting off-center
weight, but this may be disastrous to the damaged ship with negative GM and symmetrical flooding.