5-21. STATUS BOARDS. It is required that a liquid loading diagram be posted at the Damage Control Station and at
repair stations, showing the status of fuel and water tanks. Some ships use mimeographed copies of the subdivision
diagram. Each day the Engineer marks up a new copy. The value of having such a record available is that it shows
which compartments contained liquids before damage, hence did not flood. It also provides a chart on which to mark up
information on the extent of the flooding as this comes in via communication systems after damage.
Section VI. EFFECTS OF DAMAGE
NATURE OF DAMAGE. The purpose of this section is to discuss the causes of damage and their impact on the
The nature of damage which the ship sustains as a result of battle damage depends on the type of
weapon, its size, and the location of the hit.
All damage is not inflicted by the enemy. Collisions, groundings, and storms have in many cases caused
damage so severe as to threaten the survival of ships. Self-inflicted damage may stem from lack of preparation or
neglect, as discussed previously. Some other causes of impaired stability are icing topside, excessive deck load,
removal of ballast, overloading, and free surface in ship tanks or bilges.
5-23. ABOVE WATER WEAPONS. The damage which is sustained from above-water attack is initiated in four
general ways: penetration of boundaries, blast effect, fragment attack, and toxic gases.
Penetration. For penetration, most missiles are fitted with a strong steel case.
Blast. Blast effect is obtained by filling the interior of explosive missiles with a bursting charge. The
amount of blast produced varies with the weight of the bursting charge, not with the total weight. In a lightly constructed
ship, an armor-piercing missile may pass through three or more boundaries before detonating. Occasionally such
weapons pass completely through a small ship and detonate in the air beyond it.
Fragment attack. The extent of fragment or splinter damage depends both on the thickness (and type) of
case and the size of the bursting charge. Hence, greater fragment attack may be expected from a "stinger" type missile
than from an armor-piercing projectile. The fragments projected from a missile that undergoes a higher order detonation
often have velocities as high as 3,000 or 4,000 feet per second. They may penetrate two or three successive boundaries
in a ship of light construction. Secondary fragment effects are produced where passage of the missile or the blast of its
explosion tears loose portions of ship structure and hurls them about the ship, often in unexpected directions. In the
LSV, above water attack may carry to the engineering plant, cutting the fuel, or lube oil piping and damaging