Quantcast Section I. FLOODING LOAD

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TM 55-1915-200-SDC
(1) Transfer liquids toward midships.
(2) Pump liquid near damaged overboard (flooding water or liquid in intact tanks-consider stability before
pumping low weights overboard).
(3) Flood midships tanks (assuming good freeboard).
c. Counterflooding.  At times, counterflooding may be required to halt listing or gain safe righting moments.
However, counterflooding can be dangerous and result in loss of a ship if not properly accomplished and controlled. A
recommendation by the engineer to counterflood shall be accomplished only with the approval of the vessel master, and
only when all aspects have been carefully considered.
d. Flooding boundary. A flooding boundary is established by locating the bulkheads and decks which are dry and likely
to remain dry. The next action is to advance that flooding boundary toward the original point of damage by preventing
further flooding of dry or partially-flooded compartments. It is important to close in on the damage from all sides. Even
though a flooding boundary has been established, there is no indication that the boundary will remain safe. Action must
be taken by the repair party to advance that flooding back toward the point where the damage occurred.
Many ships have been lost as a result of naval action. Few of them sank as a direct result of the initial damage;
most of them went down hours later as a result of progressive flooding, fire, collapsing bulkheads, increased free-surface,
and human errors. Had flooding and fire boundaries been established when and where they were possible and had the
damage been confined to its original area, even though that area was large, many of those ships would have survived.
Hold what you have! Do everything to prevent the flooding and burning from advancing. It is human weakness
to attack obvious damage while ignoring hidden damage that may sink the ship. Hours often are wasted by repair parties
who are trying to patch large or multiple holes in compartments which are already flooded or have large free-surface
areas. Smaller holes through interior bulkheads, holes that are allowing progressive flooding and more free-surface,
often are overlooked. In most cases it would be better to plug interior holes first in order to hold what you have.
8-2. INSPECTION. Inspect thoroughly. When an underwater explosion occurs alongside or close aboard, all voids,
tanks, and lower compartments on the ship must be investigated. Rivets or plating may be torn loose, plating may be
cracked, seams may be parted, and bulkheads and shell plating may be penetrated.  This damage could occur a
considerable distance from the principal point of damage.


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